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Terms & Concepts (A - K)
Addiction: Topic Page
State of dependence caused by frequent and regular use of drugs, alcohol, or other substances. It is characterized by uncontrolled craving, tolerance, and symptoms of withdrawal when access is denied.
Anxiety: Topic Page
Anticipatory tension or vague dread persisting in the absence of a specific threat. In contrast to fear, which is a realistic reaction to actual danger, anxiety is generally related to an unconscious threat.
From The Concise Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science
Biofeedback is best understood as a closed feedback loop consisting of a person or other animal, a response, a means to detect the response, and a mechanism for displaying the response to the person or animal—the response is thus fed back.
From Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Psychology
The discovery of classical conditioning is attributed to Pavlov, who famously trained dogs to salivate when presented with a bell. Naturally, dogs will salivate when presented with food, in order to facilitate digestion.
Consciousness: Topic Page
The state of being aware of oneself and one's surroundings, without hindrance from sleep, illness, drugs, or hypnotism.
Dream: Topic Page
Mental activity associated with the rapid-eye-movement (REM) period of sleep. It is commonly made up of a number of visual images, scenes or thoughts expressed in terms of seeing rather than in those of the other senses or in words.
From The Brain Book: An illustrated guide to its structure, function and disorders.
Emotions are generated in the limbic system, which does not support consciousness itself. Intense emotions create “knock-on” activity in the cortex, especially in the frontal lobes, which we experience as a conscious “feeling” or mood.
Ethics: Topic Page
In philosophy, the study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles.
From Taber's Cyclopedia Medical Dictionary
A false perception having no relation to reality and not accounted for by any exterior stimulus; a dreamlike (or nightmarish) perception occurring while awake.
Intelligence: Topic Page
In psychology, the general mental ability involved in calculating, reasoning, perceiving relationships and analogies, learning quickly, storing and retrieving information, using language fluently, classifying, generalizing, and adjusting to new situations.
Terms & Concepts (L - Z)
Language: Topic Page
Systematic communication by vocal symbols. It is a universal characteristic of the human species.
From Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Psychology
A tradition of memory theories runs unbroken from the ancient Greeks to the present. While rarely ‘scientific’, let alone Psychological, they do all appear to be rational attempts at understanding the same thing.
Mental Health: Topic Page
Well-being and soundness of mind, not only in terms of intellectual abilities, but also in terms of the capability to deal with everyday problems, and the capacity to get on well with other people and to form and sustain relationships.
From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
A mnemonic (pronounced nemonic) is any device or method that helps memory. The word ‘mnemonic’ comes from the name Mnemosyne, who was the Greek goddess of memory.
Motivation: Topic Page
In psychology, the intention of achieving a goal, leading to goal-directed behavior. Some human activity seems to be best explained by postulating an inner directing drive.
Near-death experience: Topic Page
Phenomenon reported by some people who have been clinically dead, then returned to life.
Perception: Topic Page
In psychology, mental organization and interpretation of sensory information.
Personality: Topic Page
In psychology, the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations.
Psychiatry: Topic Page
Branch of medicine that concerns the diagnosis and treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, including major depression, schizophrenia, and anxiety.
Psychology: Topic Page
Science or study of the thought processes and behavior of humans and other animals in their interaction with the environment.
Sleep: Topic Page
Resting state in which an individual becomes relatively quiescent and relatively unaware of the environment.
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